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CNA Premium Practice Test (With answers and explanations)

1. A water pitcher has tipped over and you notice water on the floor. You should

a. wipe it up immediately
b. throw a towel over the water to prevent accidents
c. notify the charge nurse
d. call housekeeping

Answer: A

Take care of spills immediately, or a patient may be injured while waiting for housekeeping.  

2. For a resident who is classified as wound-and-skin isolation, the soiled linen should be

a. placed in the linen hamper
b. discarded
c. bagged before removing from the room
d. taken directly to the laundry

Answer: C

Wound-and-skin isolation means high likelihood of linen contamination. Therefore, all linens must be double-bagged.  

3. On entering a room, you notice that the patient is not breathing. Your first action should be to

a. call for help
b. lay the resident down on his back
c. give four quick breaths
d. give 8-10 abdominal thrusts

Answer: A

Always call for help first in an emergency.  

4. If a resident begins to choke while being fed and is unable to speak, the nursing assistant should call for help and begin doing

a. back blows
b. mouth-to-mouth ventilations
c. a finger sweep
d. abdominal thrusts

Answer: D

Abdominal thrusts are always the first step for airway obstructions

5. When you make a bed, you should place the soiled linen

a. on the bedside table
b. on the overbed table
c. in a laundry bag
d. on a chair

Answer: C

Soiled linen should be directly placed in laundry bags to prevent contamination.  

6. When making an occupied bed, it is important to

a. make half of the bed at one time
b. have one side rail up and one down
c. make a toe pleat in the top covers
d. do all of the above

Answer: D

When making an occupied bed, it is important to make half of the bed at one time, to have one side rail up and one down, and to make a toe pleat in the top covers.  

7. You can prevent decubitus ulcers by

a. changing the patient’s position frequently
b. placing an egg-crate mattress on top of the mattress
c. increasing the patient’s vitamin C consumption
d. doing both a and b

Answer: D

While choices a and b are correct, there are no data to suggest that choice c is correct.  

8. After positioning a patient, it is most important to

a. examine the resident thoroughly
b. close the door to the resident’s room so she can rest
c. offer the patient a drink of juice
d. check the position of nonfunctional limbs

Answer: D

A patient may be lying on a nonfunctional limb and have no awareness of it.  

9. The first step in getting a resident up to walk is to

a.sit the resident on the side of the bed
b. put the resident’s slippers on
c. check the activity order
d. tell the resident what you want him to do

Answer: C

Always make sure the resident is allowed to get up first.  

10. As you are transferring a patient, the resident becomes weak and starts to fall. You should

a. hold the patient’s transfer belt and lean away from the fall
b. call for help
c. grasp the transfer belt and lower the resident to the floor along your bent leg
d. hold the resident tightly and lean backwards

Answer: C

Grasp the transfer belt and lower the resident to the floor along your bent leg.  

11. The patient’s TPR is 98.8-80-30. The finding that should be reported at once is

a. pulse
b. temperature
c. respiration
d. all of the above

Answer: C

Only respirations are out of normal range.

12. Which of the following can cause an inaccurate oral temperature reading?

a. drinking hot or cold liquids within 10 minutes of the reading
b. failure to shake down a mercury thermometer
c. vigorous exercise prior to measuring temperature
d. all of the above

Answer: D

All three answers are correct.  

13. Systolic blood pressure is determined by

a. reviewing previous readings
b. listening for the first clear sound
c. waiting for a change in sound
d. listening for the last clear sound

Answer: B

Systolic is always marked as the first clear sound.  

14. The order weigh resident q.o.d. means to weigh the resident every

a. other week
b. other day
c. morning
d. week

Answer: B

The abbreviation q.o.d. means every other day.  

15. Accurate daily weights are measured

a. at the same time each day
b. with the resident fully clothed
c. in the morning
d. all of the above

Answer: A

Weight may fluctuate during the day, so to be accurate you must weigh residents at the same time each day.   

16. The first step in performing any procedure is to

a. explain the procedure
b. gather needed equipment
c. wash your hands
d. provide privacy

Answer: C

Infection control (handwashing) is always the first step in a procedur  

17. The most important factor in preventing the spread of infection is to

a. place the resident in isolation
b. handwash between resident contacts
c. clean the unit each day
d. wear sterile gloves to care for all residents

Answer: B

The most important factor in preventing the spread of infection is to wash your hands between resident contacts. 

18. Which of the following procedures best destroys all bacteria?

a. soaking in alcohol
b. washing with bleach
c. sterilizing
d. all of the above

Answer: C

Only sterilizing destroys bacteria. 

19. In the event of a fire in a resident’s room, your first action should be to

a. notify the head nurse
b. turn in a fire alarm
c. get the resident to a safe place
d. get the fire extinguisher

Answer: C

Always remove the resident from danger first.  

20. Safe use of oxygen therapy includes

a. always setting the flowmeter at 2-3 liters per minute
b. using wool blankets only
c. cleansing the nasal prongs each shift with alcohol
d. posting a no smoking sign on the door

Answer: D

Choice a is wrong because the flow is set by the physician. Choice b is wrong because wool can cause sparks, and c is wrong because alcohol causes drying. Therefore, only choice d is correct.

21. When you perform CPR, the patient should be lying

a. flat on a hard surface
b. with head and shoulders elevated
c. with the head and feet raised slightly
d. none of the above

Answer: A

The patient must be flat on a hard surface or the compressions will be inadequate to circulate blood.  

22. You have come upon a patient lying on the floor who is not moving. Your first action should be to

a. call for help
b. gently shake the victim and ask, Are you all right?
c. check to see if the patient is breathing
d. check to see if the patient has a pulse

Answer: B

Determine that there is a problem before calling for help.  

23. A procedures manual is a

a. written set of instructions on how to perform procedures
b. set of directions needed to complete your job description
c. book of directions for administering medications
d. book listing the procedures you have been assigned to do

Answer: A

A procedures manual is a written set of instructions on how to perform procedures.  

24. If a resident asks a question you cannot answer, you should

a. tell the resident you will look it up
b. ask the charge nurse to talk to the resident about it
c. call the doctor to talk to the resident
d. tell the resident that you cannot answer the question

Answer: B

Always refer such questions to the charge nurse to handle

25. The accepted way to identify a resident is to

a. check the bed name and number
b. check the identification band
c. ask the resident’s name
d. call the resident by name

Answer: B

Only an identification band is a sure thing. A confused patient may answer to any name. 

26. Which of the following best describes nail care?

a. Nail care is not needed for the elderly.
b. Use scissors for all nail care.
c. All residents need nail care.
d. Check with the LPN for nail care instructions.

Answer: C

All residents need nail care. The nursing assistant should be able to obtain information needed from the care plan. 

27. When performing perineal care on a male, always

a. clean the scrotum first
b. retract the foreskin if uncircumcised
c. clean from front to back
d. hold the penis at a 90-degree angle

Answer: B

Material may build up under the foreskin in uncircumcised males unless the foreskin is retracted for cleaning.  

28. When giving a resident a shower, you should

a. use a bath blanket
b. wear a raincoat to protect yourself
c. place the resident in a shower chair
d. run water at 135 degrees F

Answer: C

Because residents may become faint during a shower, they should always be sitting down.  

29. The purpose of the cleansing bath is to

a. provide cleanliness
b. promote circulation
c. observe skin condition
d. do all of the above

Answer: D

A bath correctly given promotes circulation at the same time as it provides an excellent opportunity to observe the skin. 

30. The reasons for rubbing a patient’s back include

a. provide cleanliness
b. promote circulation
c. observe skin condition
d. do all of the above

Answer: D

correctly given backrub improves circulation, thus relaxing the patient while giving you an opportunity for one-on-one interaction.  

31. The procedure for bathing that prevents damage to the skin is to

a. rub carefully with a rough washcloth
b. use a large amount of lotion
c. rinse well and dry thoroughly
d. apply a generous amount of talcum powder after the bath

Answer: C

The best way to prevent skin breakdown is to rinse and dry well.  

32. The patient’s elbows are dry and red. You should

a. report this to the charge nurse
b. rub them with lotion
c. apply elbow protectors
d. all of the above

Answer: A

There may be many reasons for dry skin, including medication reactions. The charge nurse should see the problem before any lotion is applied.  

33. The preferred substance for a back rub is

a. alcohol
b. talcum powder
c. lotion
d. baby oil

Answer: C

Rubbing alcohol will dry the skin, talcum powder may be inhaled and accumulates in folds, and baby oil is too greasy.  

34. A decubitus ulcer is caused by

a. poor circulation
b. pressure on the skin
c. poor nutrition
d. all of the above

Answer: D

Choices a, b, and c are all common causes of decubitus ulcers; therefore d is the best answer.  .  

35. You would shampoo a resident’s hair to improve

a. circulation to the scalp
b. the resident’s general appearance
c. the resident’s feeling of well-being
d. all of the above

Answer: D

Choices a, b, and c are all expected outcomes of a shampoo. Therefore, d is the best answer  

36. When shampooing a patient’s hair, it is important to

a. rinse thoroughly
b. protect the eyes
c. provide for privacy
d. do all of the abov

Answer: D

Choices a, b, and c are all correct; therefore, d is the best answer.

37. Which statement about trimming a diabetic’s toenails is correct?

a. You should always cut the toenails in a rounded pattern.
b. Be sure you have the doctor’s order before beginning.
c. Always use safety/bandage scissors on diabetic residents.
d. A nursing assistant may not trim a diabetic’s toenails.

Answer: D

A nursing assistant never trims a diabetic’s toenails. The diabetic often has extremely poor circulation to the feet, and any injury could lead to amputation.  

38. Which of the following statements about dressing residents is true?

a. It is not necessary for handicapped residents to dress in street clothes.
b. Residents like staff members to dress them.
c. Residents are concerned about how they look.
d. Residents are used to being dressed in front of others.

Answer: C

Choice c is the only answer that addresses resident privacy, modesty, and personal choice.  

39. Which of the following activities should be included in personal daily hygiene?

a. shaving male residents
b. hair care
c. oral hygiene
d. all of the above

Answer: D

Residents should receive hair care, oral hygiene, and shaving on a daily basis.  

40. You are removing a soiled gown from a resident who has an IV. You should

a. remove the opposite arm from the gown first
b. have the nurse remove the IV needle
c. disconnect the bag and tubing
d. slip the gown over the IV solution bag

Answer: A

Remove the sleeve from the arm without tubing first.  

41. The preferred way to remove a bedpan from a resident who is unable to lift her buttocks is to

a. use a mechanical lifting device
b. have another nursing assistant lift the resident
c. turn the patient to the side while holding the pan
d. slowly slide the pan from under the resident

Answer: A

Turning the resident is the easiest method, and it is important to hold the pan to prevent spilling the contents.  

42. A fracture-type bedpan is used for residents who

a. are in traction
b. have had hip surgery
c. have a back injury
d. have any of the above conditions

Answer: D

A fracture-type bedpan can be used by any patient who should not be lifted or turned

43. If your patient does not eat all the food on his tray, the first thing you should do is

a. notify the charge nurse
b. ask the resident why
c. remove the tray
d. urge the patient to eat all the food

Answer: B

The patient may not be eating due to personal dislike of the food. Asking first allows you to request a replacement if the problem is this simple.  

44. The resident states that a mistake has been made: there is salt on her tray, although the doctor has ordered a low-salt diet. You should

a. explain this means no salt when preparing food
b. tell the patient not to use the salt
c. check the diet order with the nurse
d. call the kitchen for a new tray

Answer: C

Any diet question must be answered before the resident eats. 

45. If a resident is receiving forced-fluid treatment, you should

a. provide at least 2,000 cc of fluid per shift
b. provide high-protein fluids
c. offer liquids every two hours
d. do all of the above

Answer: C

Choice a is incorrect because the doctor should specify the amount of liquid. Choice b is incorrect because a force-fluid diet is different from high-protein fluids. Choice d cannot be correct if a and b are incorrect

46. The main safety factor in transferring a patient is to

a. always transfer slowly
b. raise the side rails
c. secure adequate assistance
d. make sure the resident is not tired

Answer: C

Transferring safely means planning ahead, including obtaining help.

47. A resident who is too large for staff members to transfer safely is

a. moved with a mechanical lifting device
b. placed on a calorie-controlled diet
c. left in bed, but turned every two hours
d. left in bed, but repositioned every hour

Answer: A

Use a mechanical device to protect both the resident and the staff.  

48. Before transferring a resident from the bed to a wheelchair, you should sit him on the edge of the bed for a few minutes to

a. rearrange his gown or clothing
b. prevent orthostatic hypotension
c. position and secure the wheelchair
d. rest and remove the transfer belt

Answer: B

Orthostatic hypotension is the light-headed feeling we all get when we rise too fast.  

49. At the beginning of your shift, you give a resident a water pitcher containing 270 cc (9 oz.) of water. At the end of your shift, you note that 35 cc of water is left in the pitcher. How much water has been consumed?

a. 35 cc
b. 135 cc
c. 175 cc
d. 235 cc

Answer: D

The correct answer is obtained by subtracting the amount of fluid left from the fluid amount the resident started with.  

50. When a resident is on I & O, which of the following are measured?

a. liquids other than water
b. see-through liquids only
c. milk, ice cream, and carbonated beverages
d. all substances that are fluid at room temperature

Answer: D

All items that are liquid at room temperature are considered fluid (for example, ice cream, gelatin dessert, and so on).  

51. Decubitus ulcers may develop in patients who are

a. incontinent
b. paralyzed
c. poorly nourished
d. all of the above

Answer: D

Any patient who is bedbound may develop a decubitus ulcer. Those who also are incontinent, paralyzed, or poorly nourished will develop ulcers more rapidly.  

52. The proper procedure for washing the female resident’s perineal area is to

a. clean from front to back
b. clean the rectal area last
c. pat dry thoroughly
d. do all of the above

Answer: D

Clean females from front to back to prevent contamination, and clean the rectal area last for the same reason. Patting the area dry is important as moisture increases the risk of bacteria growth. 

53. Frequent mouth care should be given to residents who

a. clean from front to back
b. clean the rectal area last
c. pat dry thoroughly
d. do all of the above

Answer: D

All of the residents mentioned have high risk of mouth breathing; therefore, they all should be receiving frequent mouth care.  

54. Using the Bass method, a patient’s teeth are to be brushed

a. up and down
b. for at least ten minutes
c. with circular motions
d. all of the above

Answer: C

A circular motion cleans tooth surfaces best.  

55. When a resident complains that his dentures are hurting, you should

a. encourage him to wear the dentures more often
b. report the complaint to the charge nurse
c. report the complaint to the physician
d. put the dentures on the bedside table

Answer: B

Always bring such complaints to the charge nurse.  

56. The first thing you should do before giving a patient a tub bath is to

a. make sure the tub is clean
b. check the temperature of the water
c. make sure there is an order for it
d. gather necessary supplies table

Answer: B

Always check for an order on the care plan before performaing any activity.  

57. The resident’s religion forbids eating pork. Ham is being served for lunch. You should

a. tell the resident to eat it because she needs protein
b. tell the resident it’s all right since her doctor ordered the diet
c. ask the nurse to call the kitchen
d. tell the resident that restrictions don’t pertain in times of illness supplies table

Answer: C

The other answers do not address the resident’s right to practice religion or her right to choice.

58. It is important to remember that dying residents

a. have the same needs for care as other patients
b. need to be by themselves in a quiet room
c. do not need to be consulted regarding their care
d. are usually in pain supplies table

Answer: A

Not all dying patients have the same problems, but they have all the same care needs as anyone else.  

59. Dying residents and their families

a. always pass through five stages of dying in order
b. always accept death before it occurs
c. may go back and forth among the five stages
d. must go through all stages of dying before they die supplies table

Answer: C

Because each dying resident has unique emotional needs, each person will go through the stages at different times and in different order.  

60. A sign of dementia in elderly patients is

a. a need to eat regular meals
b. not knowing who and where they are
c. an ability to figure out problems
d. a good memory for recent events they die supplies table

Answer: B

Only choice b is usually seen in dementia.  

61. Residents with Alzheimer’s disease may show which of the following signs/symptoms?

a. physical and mental wasting away
b. extremely clear memory
c. frequent pacing or wandering
d. a and c only supplies table

Answer: D

Physical and mental wasting away are common symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, as is frequent pacing or wandering and loss of memory.  

62. When a patient turns on the call bell every few minutes, the appropriate response is to

a. ask the patient not to call so often
b. stop by the room more often
c. place the call bell out of reach
d. tell the patient how busy you are table

Answer: B

Patients who use their call bell frequently are usually afraid they will be ignored if they don’t call often. Stopping in frequently reassures them.  

63. Many older adults suffer loss of

a. income
b. physical strength
c. loved ones
d. all of the above

Answer: D

As people age, many suffer loss of income (retirement usually means a fixed income), physical strength, and loved ones.  

64. How a patient reacts to illness and disability is most dependent on his or her

a. age and stage of life
b. spouse’s support
c. income and level of education
d. support system and life history

Answer: D

A person’s total environment always affects everything that person does and thinks.  

65. An 85-year-old resident tells you that his mother is coming to visit. Your best response would be,

a. That’s impossible. Your mother can’t come to see you.
b. That’s nice, when is she coming?
c. Tell me how old your mother is.
d. Are you wishing you could see your mother? life history

Answer: D

Are you wishing you could see your mother? is the only response that uses therapeutic communication skills. 

66. In the long-term care facility, the family members should be asked to

a. leave during treatments
b. attend care-planning meetings
c. avoid visiting during mealtimes
d. help perform patient care life history

Answer: B

Federal law states that residents have the right to have family involvement in care planning.  

67. Sexuality in long-term care patients may include all of the following EXCEPT

a. needing private time with a partner
b. caring about one’s physical appearance
c. engaging in public fondling
d. desiring sexual interaction

Answer: C

As long-term care providers, nursing assistants must respect the resident’s right to sexuality. However, engaging in public fondling is inappropriate and may infringe on other residents’ rights. 

68. A patient hits you during lunch. You should

a. call the charge nurse for help
b. continue to feed her
c. apply a restraint
d. yell at her to stop hitting you interaction

Answer: A

Obtaining assistance is the only correct way to deal with abuse by a resident.  

69. The nursing assistant must report abuse of a resident by

a. the family
b. the staff
c. another patient
d. all of the above hitting you interaction

Answer: D

Federal and state laws require reporting of any abuse, whether it comes from staff, family, or other residents.

70. A cane should be used on

a. the affected (weak) side of the body
b. the unaffected (strong) side of the body
c. the side with the strongest arm
d. the weak side one day, strong side next day

Answer: B

If the cane is not used on the strong side, the resident may fall.  

71. When using crutches, the resident’s weight must rest on the

a. armpits
b. spine
c. handrests
d. knees strong side next day

Answer: C

When using crutches, the resident’s weight must rest on the handrests. 

72. A walker may be used if the resident can

a. support some weight
b. use her hands well
c. balance without help
d. walk independently

Answer: A

A resident must be able to support some weight before using a walker. 

73. Correct ROM for the neck includes

a. pronation, supination, flexion
b. rotation, abduction, adduction
c. abduction, adduction, flexion, extension
d. flexion, extension, rotation

Answer: D

The neck is only capable of moving forward, backward, and side to side. Therefore, choice d is the only correct answer. 

74. Which of the following statements about ROM is FALSE?

a. Active ROM means the resident does the exercises.
b. Passive ROM means the nursing assistant does the exercises.
c. Active ROM means the nursing assistant does the exercises.
d. Active ROM is best, if possible. rotation

Answer: C

Active ROM means the resident moves his or her own limbs.  

75. If the patient is in traction, you should never

a. monitor affected skin temperature
b. give a total bed bath
c. change the position of weights
d. monitor distal pulses possible. rotation

Answer: C

Position of weights in traction is ordered by a doctor. Therefore, the nursing assistant should never change the position of weights without an order.   

76. To transfer a resident correctly from a bed to a stretcher, you must

a. use good body mechanics
b. use a Hoyer lift
c. use at least six co-workers
d. raise the far side rail of the stretcher first possible. rotation

Answer: A

Choice b is incorrect because a Hoyer lift is only used for residents too heavy to lift. Choice c is incorrect because, if six coworkers were required, a Hoyer lift would be indicated. Choice d doesn’t make sense. Therefore, a is the only correct response. 

77. If the chains on a mechanical Hoyer lift with a chair-type seat are uneven, then the

a. shorter end goes toward the patient’s feet
b. shorter end goes toward the patient’s head
c. lift cannot be used
d. it does not matter possible. rotation